The most common mechanisms of HPV infection: how is human papillomavirus transmitted?

Papillomavirus infection (PVI) - belongs to the group of anthroponotic pathogens (transmitted from person to person only).

The route of infection is determined by several options for the development of events: sexual contact, blood, household (with a latent form of the disease - "wart").

how human papillomavirus is transmitted

Methods of infection

As mentioned above, there are only three main ways of infection - through sexual contact, blood, and domestic contact.

Through the protective barrier of the skin, mucous membranes and circulatory system, HPV has an extremely negative impact on the patient's health.

Typically, a person lives:

  1. Constant weakness.
  2. Nausea, heaviness in the hypochondrium.
  3. Pain syndrome.
  4. Problems with the urinary and reproductive systems (difficulties with urination, the appearance of acute paroxysmal pain in the perineum).
  5. Burning sensation in the groin.
  6. Dizziness against the background of frequent increases in body temperature.
  7. General decrease in the body's protective functions (frequent colds, a long recovery period after illness).
  8. Itching of the skin accompanied by the appearance of papilloma.

In order to recognize the presence of a viral infection and consult a doctor in a timely manner, it is necessary to take into account the initial conditions for the occurrence of this disease.

Prerequisites for infection

The most common preconditions for the occurrence of HPV include:

  1. Weakened immunity.
  2. Presence of other chronic diseases that weaken the body's resistance to any attacks from the outside.
  3. We are talking about hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cardiovascular disease, genetic abnormalities, rare inherited forms of the disease.
  4. Immoral sex.
  5. Unprotected sex.
  6. Infection from a loved one in everyday life: when using dishes, bedding, towels, kissing, hugging.
  7. Use of public culture and recreation areas.
  8. Visit beauty salons.
  9. Sharing personal items: combs, manicure accessories.

It is important!

Timely vaccination will protect against the most aggressive types of the virus.

Transmission paths

Papilloma virus is transmitted through contact with the body, transplacental (transmitted from infected surfaces), cerebrospinal fluid (blood, saliva, sweat).

Therefore, if there is a sick person in the family, it is necessary to constantly treat all surfaces with a special antiseptic, follow strict rules of personal contact and monitor the condition of the skin (even micro-cracks can become the primary area). damage).

Can HPV be transmitted through home contact?

Papillomavirus infection is perfectly transmitted through common objects, as well as through saliva. If there is a sick person in the house, it should not be forgotten.

Distribution mechanism:

  1. Kiss, hug. PVI passes from one person to another through saliva and sweat. This is possible due to the fact that the virus moves freely in the mucous membranes, saliva and cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. When using the patient's personal hygiene products.
  3. While shaking hands. Skin microtraumas can be excellent vectors of infection.
  4. When using joint containers.
  5. When transferring items from an infected person to a healthy person (this type of infection is very resistant to environmental factors).

Can HPV be sexually transmitted?

Because mucous membranes, skin, and their derivatives (secretions, blood vessels, saliva) carry genetic material, it is possible to become infected with human papillomavirus during sexual intercourse; as well as when using public baths and saunas.

Transmission mechanism:

  1. During direct sexual intercourse (this is especially true for oral and anal sex).
  2. When using a shared shower, bath, sauna. Without proper antiseptic and antibacterial treatment, such areas are a breeding ground for all types of infections.
  3. When using a partner's underwear and clothing (especially for women who like to wear men's shirts, shirts, shorts, family shorts).

Does the virus spread to the unborn child?

Transmission of the infection to the newborn is called a "vertical transplant". This type of papillomavirus transmission is one of the most dangerous because it damages a child's body and intellect.

After exposure to HPV, especially in the early stages (1 trimester), doctors insist on abortion for medical reasons.


Self-infection is possible only with the use of untreated hygiene products. For example: razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers and similar items.

With this form of papilloma virus transmission, the patient does not feel anxious for a long time and leads a normal life. And when the first signs of the disease appear (they are very similar to banal overwork), ignore them without going to the doctor.

What types of HPV are the most dangerous?

The most dangerous types of human papillomavirus (HPV) include types 16 and 18. They have strains that trigger the appearance of malignant neoplasms - cancerous tumors that can metastasize as they grow.

The most common manifestations of exposure to the virus strain are the occurrence of diseases: cervical cancer, infertility, pulmonary and bronchial changes, acute immunoglobulin deficiency.

Note! Cervical cancer can only occur due to the most aggressive form of the virus. Most papillomas are not dangerous.


A number of the most sophisticated hardware methods help to detect the presence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in the body.

  • Colposcopy. A colposcope is a medical device that allows you to accurately identify changes in the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system: to detect inflammation, damage and the spread of viruses, fungal bacteria. Its use to determine the presence of HPV in the body is used to finally confirm the diagnosis. This device is capable of: under 30 times magnification, find the source of inflammation, determine its nature, dig directly into the affected area.
  • PCR examination. This laboratory method is a differential diagnosis of this type of disease. PCR makes it difficult to determine both the type of virus and the route of infection. A biomaterial sample is required for this analysis: blood, urine, sperm.
  • Digen test. A modern diagnostic method based on the isolation of a small area of affected skin for research. Using this approach, medical professionals can say with 100% accuracy what type of virus is present in the body, what its concentration is, whether it is in a reactive form, and which antiviral drugs are sensitive.
  • Cytology. The problem is to study at the cellular level. To do this, the upper layer of the papilloma is removed, a separate part of the mucous membrane is removed. With the help of a heavy microscope and a set of basic reagents, laboratory technicians study the behavior of the virus, its effect on the body (forecasting), the degree of damage to the body's internal systems.
  • Histological diagnosis. The purpose of this technique is to study morphological changes in tissues. Material for the study is taken using a biopsy.


Treatment for human papilloma virus includes strict adherence to sexual abstinence, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunomodulators, vitamin complexes, and medications to reduce the effects of the virus on the body.

You should also restrict the access of healthy people to personal belongings, hygiene items, utensils and bedding. When malignant neoplasms caused by a virus appear, corrective treatment or surgery is performed with a long rehabilitation period.

Ways to prevent the disease

The main ways to prevent HPV are:

  • Compliance with the rules of sanitation and household supply of the living space.
  • Use of contraceptives.
  • Monitoring of their health by specialized specialists.
  • Use personal hygiene products strictly for their intended purpose without giving them to third parties.
  • Visits to places at high risk of infection: baths, saunas, swimming pools, water parks, massage and beauty salons.
  • Protecting the skin from the interaction of many external factors.
  • Protect your health by isolating yourself from any infectious and viral diseases, skin diseases.

It is simply not possible to fight a complex viral infection on your own. Medical supervision will be the first and most serious step to solving the existing problem, seeking timely qualified assistance from a wide range of specialists.

If such a problem occurs, one of the family members should be diagnosed regularly and follow all the doctor's instructions to prevent the spread of the virus. In addition, we must not forget about precautions that will help prevent infection.